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Jasa Pembuatan Skripsi
Jasa Pembuatan Skripsi

Thursday, June 8, 2017

Jasa Buat Skripsi: download Skripsi al-Ahwal al-Syakhshiyyah:The problems of marriage dispensation on act no. 1 year 1974 on marriage article 7 paragraph (2) in maslahah perspective

Abstract

INDONESIA:
Di Indonesia, pernikahan diatur tentang usia minimum pernikahan yaitu 19 tahun bagi laki-laki dan 16 tahun bagi perempuan. Calon pasangan suami istri yang masih di bawah umur diizinkan untuk menikah melalui izin dispensasi nikah. Izin dispensasi nikah tersebut harus didasarkan pada alasan yang mendasar. Hal itu agar rasio legis dispensasi nikah dapat dicapai dengan baik. Dispensasi nikah diatur di dalam Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan. Peraturan dispensasi nikah tersebut tidak diformulasikan secara jelas. Peraturan tersebut tidak memberikan persyaratan-persyaratan atau batasan-batasan tentang dispensasi nikah harus diberikan kepada calon suami istri yang masih di bawah umur. Hal itu mendorong masyarakat untuk mengajukan dispensasi nikah secara bebas. Kekosongan persyaratan-persyaratan tersebut menjadikan tujuan yang ingin dicapai dispensasi nikah menjadi tidak pasti. Oleh karena itu, hal ini menarik untuk dikaji mengenai permasalahan-permasalahan peraturan dispensasi nikah melalui studi analisis terhadap Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan menurut nilai-nilai kemaslahatan di dalam perkawinan.
Dalam kajian ini, rumusan masalah dari penelitian ini adalah: 1) Apa permasalahan-permasalahan dipensasi nikah dan bagaimana pengaruhnya terhadap masyarakat? 2) Bagaimana teori kemaslahatan memandang dispensasi nikah pada Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan?
Penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian normatif atau studi kepustakaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan gabungan pendekatan dari pendekatan undang-undang dan pendekatan konseptual. Seumber data yang digunakan adalah sumber data sekunder. Itu terbagi menjadi sumber hukum primer, sumber hukum sekunder dan sumber hukum tersier. Metode pengumpulan data adalah bahan hukum primer dan bahan hukum sekunder dikumpulkan berdasarkan issu yang diformulasikan berdasarkan sistem dokumentasi. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah dengan menggunakan analisis induktif. Analisis induktif adalah menarik kesimpulan dari suatu permasalahan konkret yang bersifat khusus kepada permasalahan abtsrak yang bersifat umum.
Hasil penemuan menunjukkan bahwa problematika dispensasi nikah pada Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan adalah: a) peraturan dispensasi nikah tersebut kabur. Dispensasi nikah pada Pasal 7 Ayat (2) Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan tersebut tidak memberikan formulasi dan persyaratan yang jelas. Hal itu mendorong masyarakat untuk mengajukan dispensation nikah secara bebasb) Dispensasi nikah mendorong masyarakat untuk menikah di bawah umur. Perkawinan di bawah umur bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang Perlindungan Anak dan peraturan-peraturan yang lainnya. Hal itu juga merupakan perampasan terhadap hak-hak anak. Dispensasi nikah menurut teori kemaslahatan adalah dispensasi nikah hanya diberikan kepada pasangan yang masih di bawah umur yang mana pihak perempuan telah hamil di luar nikah dengan beberapa persyaratan.
ENGLISH:
In Indonesia, the marriage is set about marriageable age namely nineteen years old for a man and sixteen years old for a woman. An underage bride and groom are allowed to get married by approving of marriage dispensation. The approving of marriage dispensation should be based on the crucial reasons. It is in order the ratio legist of marriage dispensation and the marriageable age can be achieved well. The marriage dispensation is regulated on Article 7 Paragraph (2) Act No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage. The rule of marriage dispensation is not formulated clearly. It does not give the requirements and the limitations of marriage dispensation should be given to the bride and groom who are under the marriageable age. It encourages people for submitting marriage dispensation freely. The absence of requirements for marriage dispensation has taken achieved intents of marriage dispensation become uncertain. Thus, it is interesting to analyze the problems of marriage dispensation by studying on Article 7 Paragraph (2) Act No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage which is analyzed in perspective of maslahah in Marriage.
In this study, the problem statements of the research are: 1) What are the problems of marriage dispensation and how do they influence the society? 2) How does maslahah theory view marriage dispensation on Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage Article 7 Paragraph (2)?
This study is normative research or library research. This study uses the approach of juridical normative that uses a combination of the statue approach and conceptual approach. Source of the data are secondary data. It is divided into primary legal material, secondary legal material, and tertiary legal material. Collection data method is primary legal materials and secondary legal materials collected according to the topic issues that have been formulated based documentation system. Analyzing data method which used in this study is inductive analysis. It summarizes a specifically concrete issue to the generally abstract issue.

The result indicates that the problems of marriage dispensation on Article 7 Paragraph (2) of 1974 on Marriage are: a) the rule of marriage dispensation is obscure. Marriage dispensation on Article 7 Paragraph (2) of Marriage Law does not give the clear formulations and requirements. It encourages people for submitting marriage dispensation freely b) Marriage dispensation leads the society to get married under the marriageable age. The Marriage under the marriageable age is contradict with Child Protection Law and other regulations. It is also deprivation of the child’s rights. Marriage dispensation in the perspective of maslahah is marriage dispensation should be approved only to couples which the girl has been pre-marital pregnancy with some requirements.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background of Research

Marriage is first step to construct a family by processing of agreement (mitsaqan ghalidhan) between a man and a woman. In Indonesia, the marriage is set about marriageable age. The marriageable age is nineteen years old for a man and sixteen years old for a woman. 1 An underage bride and groom have not been allowed to get married.2 An underage bride and groom are allowed to get married by a license of marriage dispensation.3 1Based on the Article 7 Paragraph (1) Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage. 2Hilman Hadikusuma, Hukum Perkawinan Indonesia Menurut Perundangan, Hukum Adat, Hukum Agama, (Bandung: CV. Mandar Maju, 2007), p. 47. 3Hilman Hadikusuma, Hukum Perkawinan Indonesia Menurut Perundangan, p. 49. 2 The marriage dispensation is a government‟s policy to solve an underage bride‟s and groom‟s problems which require deviation the marriageable age. The license of marriage dispensation should be given to the underage bride and groom on certain reasons. The licensing of marriage dispensation should be given to the underage bride and groom because of their condition requiring to get married. The essence of marriage dispensation is an exemption of the marriageable age. The licensing of marriage dispensation should be in line with the intents of marriageable age. The license of marriage dispensation should be based on the crucial reasons. The license which is based on the crucial reasons is in order the ratio legist of marriage dispensation and the marriageable age can be achieved well. Many people have submitted the petition for marriage dispensation to the courts. The annual report of religion courts in 2013 and 2014 noted that the number of marriage dispensation is high. The petition for marriage dispensation in Religion Court of Jombang is an average 136 petitions per year. 4 Then, the petition for marriage dispensation in Religion Court of Tulungagung is an average 248 petitions per year. 5 Moreover, the petition for marriage dispensation in Religion Court of Kabupaten Malang is an average 395 petitions per year. 6 The submission of marriage dispensation is caused by the various factors. They are slander in the community, worries of parents toward adultery, and pre- 4Based on the annual report from the Religion Court of Jombang 2013 and 2014. 5Based on the annual report from the Religion Court of Tulungagung 2013 and 2014. 6Based on the annual report from the Religion Court of Kab. Malang 2013 and 2014. 3 marital pregnancy. 7 In addition, submission of marriage dispensation is caused by economic factor, education factor, environment factor and culture factor. The marriage dispensation is regulated on Article 7 Paragraph (2) Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage (next be translated by Marriage Law). It states that: In deviation from the provision in paragraph (1) of this article, dispensation may be petitioned to the Court or other authority designated by the parents of both the male and female marriage candidate. The article explains about the legal basic of marriage dispensation. According to the article, the parents can apply a dispensation to the Court or the other authorized officials. The rule of marriage dispensation is not formulated clearly. It does not give the requirements and the limitations of marriage dispensation should be given to the bride and groom who are under the marriageable age. It encourages people for submitting marriage dispensation freely. The absence of requirements for marriage dispensation makes the achieved intents of marriage dispensation become uncertain. The rule of marriage dispensation should give specific formulations by determining the requirements of marriage dispensation. Thus the intents of marriage dispensation can be realized well. Obscurity of the formulation about marriage dispensation causes variety interpretations. The judges are permitted to interpret the article freely without specific 7Candra Dwi Irawan, dkk., Pertimbangan Hukum Dispensasi Kawin bagi Pasangan Calon Perkawinan Belum Bekerja (Unemployment) oleh Hakim Pengadilan Agama Jombang, Report of PKLI Research 2015 (Malang: Fakultas Syariah UIN Malang, 2015), p. 58-60. 4 formulations. Generally, the judge‟s decision is based on the weak reasons. The judges have rarely based their decision on the more crucial reasons; they are like effect of marriage under the marriageable age, consequences to the education, and other rights of child. It indicates that the reasons for licenses of marriage dispensation are very weak. Currently the formulation of marriage dispensation indicates incompatibility the ratio legist of marriage dispensation with the intents of the marriageable age. The obscurity of marriage dispensation formulation has consequences to the marriage without definitely marriageable age and the freely legalized marriage under the marriageable age. The marriage under the marriageable age is contrary to the values contained in the principle of marriage. The Marriage Law determines the principle of a bride and a groom should be mature physical and mature soul to get married. The principle intends to realize the purpose of marriage well without ended at divorce as well as get the healthy offspring.8 A marriage under the marriageable age is not recommended for health reasons. The underage woman‟s reproductive tool is not prepared yet to be fertilized. The marriage under the marriageable age makes possible a young age pregnancy. According to Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN), too young age for pregnancy can be risk to the maternal mortality and infant mortality.9 8Ahmad Rofiq, Hukum Perdata Islam di Indonesia, (Jakarta: Rajawali Pers, 2013), p. 48. 9Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN), 2007. 5 The maternal mortality has reached a high number. Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI) in 2012 has noted that the number of the maternal mortality is 359 per 100.000 live births. One of the factors is very young age for pregnancy.10 A marriage under the marriageable age will put the domestic life at risk and disharmony. The disharmony will occur because of the lack of a married couple‟s awareness to have responsibility in the domestic life. It causes a conflict which leads to the divorce.11 The marriage under the marriageable age is violation of the Child Protection Law. It regulates that every child have a right to receive education and teaching. 12 If the children are married by their parent, they will be blocked to obtain the formal education. A marriage under the marriageable age and an adolescent pregnancy influence the low level of women education, low working women participant and young family with low income. They have consequences on family crisis and less profitable level of welfare. Marriage under the marriageable age also influences to the decline of human resources quality, the child abuse, the increase poverty, the exploitation, and the child commercial sex. 13 10Kementerian Kesehatan RI, Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI, (Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2014), p.1. 11Hendy Hermawan, Pengaruh Pernikahan Dini terhadap Perceraian Dini (Studi Kasus di Pengadilan Agama Klaten Tahun 2008-2010), Thesis (Yogyakarta: UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2010), p. 102. 12Based on the Article 9 Paragraph (1) Act No. 23 year 2002 on Child Protection. 13Muhammad Nizar Fauzi, Pandangan Masyarakat dalam Pernikahan Usia Dini Studi Kasus di Desa Cikurutug Kecamatan Cikreunghas Kabupaten Sukabumi Provinsi Jawa Barat, Thesis (Jakarta: UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 2014), p.3. 6 A marriage under the marriageable age is much opposed by the community. According to Gunilla Olsson (the head of UNICEF Indonesia Representative) states that marriage under the marriageable age harms the children. The marriage under the marriageable age threatens people into the poverty. In addition, Abdul Muth‟i (the general secretary of PP Muhammadiyah) argues that early marriage is not in accordance with the Islamic teachings. The girls are allowed to get married because they have matured physically, intellectually and spiritually. 14 Marriage dispensation opens opportunity a marriage under the marriageable age. The marriage under the marriageable age has many negative impacts for household and the couple. The negative effects will be straight to increase if the formulation of marriage dispensations does not provide clearly requirements and limitations. Unregulated justifiable reason to apply dispensation has reduced the marriage dispensation concept itself. Thus, it is interesting to analyze the problems of marriage dispensation by studying on Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage Article 7 Paragraph (2) in the perspective of maslahah. B. Statement of Problem Based on the background of research above, the statement of problems which become the object of discussion are: 14http://kabar24.bisnis.com/read/20150903/79/468656/unicef-pernikahan-dini-di-indonesiamembahayakan-anak, accessed on February 10th 2016. 7 1. What are the problems of marriage dispensation and how do they influence the society? 2. How does maslahah theory view marriage dispensation on Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage Article 7 Paragraph (2)? C. Objective of Research The objectives to be achieved of the research are: 1. To find out, explain and analyze the problems of marriage dispensation and the influences to the society. 2. To find out and explain maslahah theory views marriage dispensation on Act No. 1 year 1974 on Marriage Article 7 Paragraph (2). D. Significance of Research The result of the present study is expected to be a useful reference, both theoretically and practically. They are: 1. Theoretical benefits Theoretically, this study aims to describe, determine, and analyze the limitation of permission for marriage dispensation in the Court or the other authorized officials. It is expected to give thoughts and sciences contribution as well as to be a reference for continuing study related to marriage dispensation. 2. Practically benefits 8 a. For the society, this study will be a consideration for reducing the underage marriage culture by submitting a marriage dispensation. b. For the judges, this study will be a material consideration on the license of marriage dispensation for the crucial reasons. c. For the government, this study will be a legal material for revising or renewal the rule of marriage dispensation. E. Operational Definition 1. Dispensation: An exemption from prohibition as a common rule. 2. Marriage dispensation: An exemption from a prohibition of marriage under 16 years and 19 years old based on the Marriage Law. 3. Marriage under the marriageable age: A marriage is established by a bride and a groom under the 16 years old and 19 years old
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