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Jasa Pembuatan Skripsi
Jasa Pembuatan Skripsi

Thursday, June 8, 2017

Jasa Buat Skripsi: download Skripsi al-Ahwal al-Syakhshiyyah:Effectiveness of Kerapatan Adat Nagari (KAN) as institution of mediation on family conflict: The case study of east Malalak Agam region

Abstract

ENGLISH:
Kerapatan Adat Negari (KAN) is an institution of kerapatan from Ninik Mamak that has been inheritance hereditary as far as the tradition. It has function for keeping the tradition and solving the disagreement. In this case, this institution has very important role for Malalak people in solving the family’s problem such as divorce and inheritance that appropriate with the rule, tradition and religion. “adaik basandisyarak ’ syara’ basand Kitabullah”.
This study aims to know what is the role of KAN as a mediation institution in solving family’s conflict and know what is the effectiveness KAN as a mediation institution in solving family’s conflict.
In this study, the writer used juridical empirical method through juridical sociological approach by collecting a primer data. The writer used qualitative method by observed and investigated based on the fact in society directly in enforcement of mediation that conducted by KAN. Also knowing the condition directly from KAN institution in East Malalak itself.
The process of solving family’s conflict conducted by KAN institution in east Malalak through lower level first such as acknowledgment “ Minangkabau” (BajanjangNaik, BatanggoTurun). It means the first step in solving family’s conflict through discussion with the family, then in ethnic, in the last will be conducted by KAN. The function of KAN as a mediation institution in solving family’s conflict to finding the best solutions. Also the final result is a reconciliation not just a decision.
According to the number of cases so KAN has many oppurtunities being an institution of tradition that has a function as Mediation Institution on solving problems in society, especially for east Malalak people. It’s been supported through culture in that society who is obeyed with the rule of KAN
INDONESIA:
yang telah ada dan diwarisi secara turun temurun sepanjang ada dan berfungsi memelihara kelestarian adat serta menyelesaikan perselisihan.
Dalam Hal ini Lembaga KAN Memiliki peran penting bagi masyarakat Malalak dalam menyelesaikan permaslahan keluarga baik berupa perceraian maupun masalah waris yang sesuai dengan ketentuan atau aturan adat maupun Agama “ada ikbasan disyarak’ syara’ basandi Kitabullah”.
Dalam penelitian ini, rumusan masalah yang ditentukan adalah:1) bagaimana peranan lembaga KAN dalam menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan keluarga? Dan 2) bagaimana effektifitas KAN sebagai lembaga mediasi dalam menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan keluarga?
Penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian yuridis empiris dengan pendekatan yuridis sosiologis. Yang mana dalam memperoleh data primer Penulis melihat dan mendengar secara langsung mengenai kenyataan dalam kehidupan masyarakat mengenai upaya penegakan mediasi yang dilaksanakan oleh KAN dan keadaan dari lembaga KAN yang terdapat di Malalak timur itus endiri.
Adapun proses dalam penyelesaian sengketa keluarga oleh KAN di Malalak Timur diselesaikan oleh tingkat yang bawah dahulu, seperti kata pepatah Minangkabau “ Bajanjang Naik, Batanggo Turun” yaitu diselesaikan di tahap rumah, suku baru setelah itu diselesaikan di tingkat nagari yaitu KAN. Dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan keluarga, KAN hanya berfungsi sebagai lembaga mediasi yang membantu dalam mencari jalan tengah dari suatu permasalahan. Dan dengan hasil akhir berupa hasil perdamaian bukan putusan.

Dari hasil penelitianmengenaijumlahkasus yang dapatdiselesaikanoleh KAN maka KAN memilki peluang besar sebagai suatu lembaga mediasi adat yang berfungsi menyelesaikan suatu permasalahan masyarakat terkhusus dalam masyarakat Malalak timur. Dan di diperkuat dengan kebudayaan masyarakat setempat yang masih patuh terhadap aturan KAN, semakin memperkuat lembaga ini dalam menjalankan posisinya sebagai sautu lembaga yang harus dijaga dalam menjalankan perannya sebagai lembagam ediasi.



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background of Study
 As a method of resolving disputes peacefully, mediation has a great opportunity to grow in Indonesia. With Eastern customs are still rooted, people prefer the fixed relations between family relationship or a relationship with a business associate rather than momentary profits when the dispute arose. Resolve the dispute in court may generate huge profits when winning, but the relationship is also being damaged. Save face (saving face) or a person's good name are important things that are sometimes better in the dispute resolution process in the country, including Eastern Indonesia cultured.1 1 Fatahillah A. Syukur, Mediasi Yudisial Di Indonesia (Bandung: Mandar Maju, 2012)., p 4,. As reduct from John S. K. Ng, The Four Faces of Face : Implication for Medication, dalam An Asian Perspective on Mediation , eds Lee J. And Hwee, T.H., Academy Publishing, Singapore, 2009, p. 158 -169) 2 Mediation is one of the effective instruments of non-litigation dispute resolution that has many benefits and advantages. The benefits and advantages of using the mediation among others is that disputes can be resolved in a win-win solution, the time used is not prolonged, lighter charges, fixed the rights two relationships between two people that is in dispute and save their issues from publication.2 The mediation was already known In Islam, it was known in Islam with term “ishlah”. This determinate same with Allah decree in Al-hujurah verse 9: 3 "And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly”. (Al-hujurah. 9) That if two classes of believers fight and so they let a peace, carried out fairly and properly for God so love the people who do justice.4 In Prophet Muhammad era was practice the mediation to solving conflict in laying black stone (hajar aswad) into it place, where between members of qabilah in order to become mutually scramble that put the black 2 Syahrizal Abbas, Mediasi dalam Hukum Syariah, Hukum Adat, dan Hukum Nasional, (Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group, 2011), p . 22., 3QS.Al-hujurah verse 9 4 Abdul Manan, Penerapan Hukum Acara Perdata di Lingkungan Peradilan Agama, (Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media, 2005), p. 151. 3 stone. Then to complete this Prophet Muhammad was not the one to judge but a prophet as a mediator to mediate so finding the midpoint in this issue. And also in Minangkabau has an indigenous institution which is engaged in the field of mediation, which the Agency is named Kerapatan Adat Nagari (KAN). Through this custom community can resolve their problems through mediation. The existence of KAN was regulated in local legislation of West Sumatera Number. 2 year 2007 about Pokok-Pokok merintahan Nagari in article 1 the number 13, that. “KAN berkendudukan sebagai lembaga perwakilan permusyawaratan masyarakat adat tertinggi yang telah ada dan diwarisi secara turun temurun sepanjang adat”.KAN serves as the representative of the indigenous people‟s consultative institution that has been there and was inherited hereditary all custom long.5 The position of KAN in Indonesia is also reinforced by the Constitution year 1945 in article 18B verse 2 "Negara mengakui dan menghormati kesatuan–kesatuan masyarakat hukum adat beserta hak-hak tradisionalnya sepanjang masih hidup dan sesuai dengan perkembangan masyarakat, dan prinsip Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang diatur dalam Undang-Undang.The State recognizes and respects the unity – the unity of Community law and their traditional rights are all still alive and in 5Local Legislation of Sumbar Number. 2 year 2007 about Pokok-Pokok merintahan Nagari 4 accordance with the development community, and the principle of the unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia regulated in legislation.6 Besides that, the function of that institution is keeping sustainability customary as well as long and also solved the custom conflict. In local regulations of West Sumatera, Kerapatan Adat Nagari (KAN) is authorized to deal the problems that are: Disputes concerning the title (Sako), property inheritance (Pusako) and other civil Disputes.7 The other civil conflict that happen between members of society such as divorce and so on.8 More over in local legislation of West Sumatera Number.16 year 2008 article 12 paragraph (1) about Penyelesaian Sengketa Tanah Ulayat that: “Sengketa tanah ulayat di nagari diselesaikan oleh KAN menurut ketentuan sepanjang adat yang berlaku, “bajanjang naiak batanggo turun” dan diusahkan dengan jalan perdamaian melalui musyawarah dan mufakat dalam bentuk keputusan perdamaian”. Alienated land dispute resolved by KAN nagari according to the provisions of all applicable customs, "bajanjang naiak batanggo turun" and effort with the path of peace through deliberation and consensus in the form of the decision of peace "9 . The provisions of this article suggests the proses in this dispute was used a non litigation proses that is mediation. In position of Kerapatan Adat Nagari is not as institutions court to justice for but to solve the dispute. 6Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia 1945 7 Perda sumatera barat pasal 7 ayat 1 huruf b dan huruf c Perda nomor 13 in1983 8 As Suhaiti Arief, Eksistensi Peradilan Adat Pada Masyarakat Hukum Adat Minangkabau di Sumatera Barat (research proposal of competetion hibah, Padang, 2007), p.3 9 Perda number 16 year 2008 5 In Article 12 paragraph (1) of local legislation in West Sumatera No. 16 year 2008 above explain that existence of Kerapatan Adat Nagari in resolving over customs conflicts just as mediation process, the intended of that process is to reconcile the parties to their conflict. Kerapatan Adat Nagari only as facilitates. Whereas product of that mediation to reached the agreement in two sides, so that the decision of Kerapatan Adat Nagari in conflict resolving is reached or no reached the peace for both parties.Then in local regulation in West Sumatera Number. 16 year 2008 on article 12 paragraph (2) outlines that, if peace decision is not accepted by the parties to the dispute referred to in paragraph (1), the parties can give over their conflict to the Court in that District. Because of that many of the people in Malalak solve their problems in institutions of KAN, in addition to the problems that have discussed in Perda and other problems that have not discussed in local legislation. Most of this society a lot of solving family heirloom treasures or either of the problems surrounding the marriage. The mediation process is done in this KAN directly handled by Ninik Mamak or King as the Chief of the parties. So this mediator knows the ins and outs of the life of the parties concern. And people with a deep knowledge about the Customs and laws of Islam then present potential in resolving the problems of the troubled party. In addition, there are still many advantages that can be obtained from the local community in resolving disputes on the KAN that is by using a 6 family systems and particularly for the community of Malalak it gives a great advantage and easily accessible from every walks of life. From the excellences of KAN and mediator of is decorous head of the custom who knows more something about custom. So that it is a very effective way to get win-win solutions. But now when society is doing about the problem of family mediation in these institutions are often results of the deal produced by KAN in decline by the local court. So this is very detrimental to the local community which has indeed been accustomed to resolving their problems in these institutions. So the circumstances like these often compel people to resolve their problems through the courts and mediators who already have a certificate for the sake of recognition can be a result of local courts without having to pay attention to which is more effective in resolving their problems. So therefore mediation is undertaken at the Institute‟s it faced challenges from outside and from within itself, An example of external factor that there is unconformity between Government and KAN in terms of the handling or problem resolving that have been domain of Kerapatan Adat Nagari. The Court accepts cases of Harato Pusako from the plaintiff without having processed by KAN first are owners of authority in mediating that disputes. And the court can solve the dispute when KAN has given a letter for result of mediation on it like agreement latter. 7 So that activity and the condition of KAN not optimality cause of this issues. There are other factors that hamper the effectiveness of KAN in carrying out its duties and functions as an indigenous institution. Based on explanation above, the authors interested in researching on EFFECTIVENESS OF KERAPATAN ADAT NAGARI (KAN) AS THE INSTITUTION OF MEDIATION ON FAMILY CONFLICT (Case study in Malalak District of Agam). B. Statement of Problem 1. What is the role of KAN as an institution of mediation in family conflicts resolution in Malalak, District of Agam? 2. What is the effectiveness of KAN as institution of mediation in family conflicts resolution in Malalak, District of Agam? C. Objective of Research In this proposal have some clear object that do not apart from main topic in research, there are: 1. To know deeply about role of KAN in solve the family conflict in Malalak, District of Agam. 2. To know how far the effectiveness of KAN as institution of mediation in solve the family conflicts in Malalak, District of Agam. D. Significance of Research 1. Theories Significance a. To invited people to resolve their conflict in custom institutions mediations that Kerapatan Adat Nagari (KAN). 8 b. Author expected this research can give science contributions in knowing how positions of custom institutions mediation in solve the problem. 2. Practical Significance a. Can be reference of people in Minangkabau especially people in Malalak to solve their problem in custom institutions mediation of KAN. b. Give contribution to government in saving custom constitutions especially Kerapatan Adat Nagari. c. give solutions to make a compromise between court and institutions of custom mediation or KAN in realized and keep the custom of Minang kabau.

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