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Saturday, June 10, 2017

Jasa Buat Skripsi: download Skripsi al-Ahwal al-Syakhshiyyah: Converting inheritance rights into saving and loan form in maslahah perspective: Case study in Geluran, Taman, Sidoarjo

Abstract

INDONESIA:
Berdasarkan pada al-Quran, pembagian waris dilaksanakan setelah meninggalnya pewaris. Selanjutnya, harta waris tersebut diberikan kepada ahli waris secara otomatis. Maka, setiap ahli waris mendapatkan hak untuk memiliki harta waris. Namun, salah satu keluarga di Desa Geluran Kecamatan Taman Kabupaten Sidoarjo, membuat suatu kesepakatan bahwa ahli waris tidak mendapatkan hak untuk memiliki harta waris (uang waris). Hak warisnya dikonversikan menjadi simpan dan pinjam. Seluruh bagian uang ahli waris diberikan kepada anak pertama pewaris, selanjutnya uang tersebut disimpan oleh anak pertama. Suatu saat, ahli waris dapat meminjam uang tersebut dan mengembalikannya ketika sudah mampu. Pembagian waris ini tidak membatasi waktu pengembalian uang dan juga tidak menetapkan bunga. Pembagian waris ini menjadi kasus yang diteliti karena terdapat perbedaan cara pembagian menurut hukum waris islam. Penelitian ini merumuskan masalah-masalah, yakni: 1) mengapa orang-orang mengkonversi hak waris menjadi bentuk simpan dan pinjam? dan 2) Bagaimana maslahah memandang konversi hak waris menjadi bentuk simpan dan pinjam?
Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian empiris (penelitian lapangan) dan pendekatan kualitatif yang berdasarkan pada analisis deskriptif. Tempat penelitian di Desa Geluran, Kecamatan Taman, Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer yang digunakan adalah wawancara pada informan (the heirs). Data sekundernya adalah dokumen- dokumen tertulis, buku-buku, penelitian-penelitian terdahulu, peraturan-peraturan yang berkaitan dengan judul skripsi. Khususnya, peneliti membutuhkan buku- buku yang berbicara tentang konsep hukum waris islam dan maslahah. Selanjutnya, pandangan maslahah Najamuddin at-Thufi adalah alat penelitian ini. Konsepnya digunakan sebagai dasar teori untuk mendiskusikan fakta-fakta yang ditemukan. Diskusi tersebut bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hasil penelitian yang benar dan teoritis.
Penelitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa alasan mengkonversikan hak waris menjadi simpan dan pinjam mempunyai tiga keuntungan dan dua kerugian. Keuntungannya adalah: 1) untuk membantu ahli waris yang membutuhkan dana, 2) untuk mencegah perpecahan diantara ahli waris, dan 3) untuk menciptakan hubungan keluarga yang lebih harmonis. Kemudian, kerugiannya adalah: 1) anak tertua harus menambal uang waris ketika uang tersebut kosong dan 2) setiap ahli waris tidak punya hak memiliki harta waris. Selanjutnya, berdasarkan pandangan maslahah Najamuddin at-Thufi, pembagian waris tersebut dapat menjaga tujuan hukum islam yakni maslahah. Najamuddin at-Thufi menegaskan bahwa manusia dapat menolak nash jika nash bertentangan dengan maslahah. Pembagian waris tersebut adalah persoalan muamalah yang termasuk hak manusia. At-Thufi menegaskan bahwa maslahah hanya berasal dari akal. Ia menempatkan akal lebih tinggi daripada Quran dan Hadis. Jadi, jika akal ahli waris melihat konversi hak waris menjadi bentuk simpan pinjam sebagai maslahah, maka itu harus dipertahankan.
ENGLISH:
Based on the Quran, the inheritance distribution is performed after deceased passed away. Then, the property is given to the heirs automatically. So, every heir has the right to possess the property. But, one of the families in the Village of Geluran, Taman, Sidoarjo made an agreement that heirs do not obtain the right to possess the property (the money). Their right was converted into saving and loan form. All their’s share was given to the deceased’s eldest son, and the money was saved by him. Any time, the heirs can borrow the money and return it when he/she is capable. The inheritance distribution does not limit the return time and it does not also set the interest. The inheritance distribution becomes a case that is researched because it has different way based on the Islamic law of inheritance. This research formulates the problems, namely: 1) Why do people convert inheritance right into saving and loan form? And 2) How does maslahah view on converting inheritance right into saving and loan form?
The research uses empirical research (field research) and qualitative approach that based on descriptive analysis. Locus of the study is in the Village of Geluran, Taman, Sidoarjo. The research uses primary and secondary data. The primary data is the interview to the informant (the heirs). The secondary data are written documents, books, previous researches, regulations that related to the thesis title. Especially, the researcher needs the books that talk about the concept of Islamic Law of Inheritance and maslahah. Furthermore, the maslahah of Najamuddin at-Thufi’s view is the tool analysis of the research. His concept is used as basic theory to discuss the finding facts. The discussion aims to obtain the result of the research correctly and theoretically.
The research provides the conclussion that the reason to convert the inheritance right into saving and loan form has three advantages and two disadvantages. The advatages are: 1) to help the heir who needs fund, 2) to prevent the disunity among heirs, and 3) to create more harmonious family relationship. Then, the disadvantages are: 1) the eldest son must patch the money when it is zero and 2) all heirs have no right to possess the money. Furthermore, based on the maslahah of Najamuddin at-Thufi’s view, the inheritance distribution can maintain the purpose of Islamic law namely maslahah. Najamuddin at-Thufi affirms that human can refuse the nash if it contradicts to the maslahah. The inheritance distribution is muamalah issues that included to the human’s right. At-Thufi confirms that the maslahah only comes from the reason. He places the reason higher than Quran and hadith. So, if the heirs’ reasons look the converting of inheritance right into saving and loan form as a maslahah, then it must be maintained.
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background of Research
 Inheritance is one of importance problems in human life. With the rule of inheritance, right and obligation of wealth will be moved to other person. The inheritance is used by some people to measure the necessity. As a consequence, the inheritance distribution will open the chance of dispute.1 Islamic law of inheritance is the knowledge to know the person who accept and do not accept property, the property shares, and the way of 1 Syakroni, Konflik Harta Warisan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), p. 1. 2 inheritance distribution. In Islamic law, sources of inheritance law consists of Quran, Hadith, ijma’, and ijtihad sahabat. The provision argues both man and woman have the right to get the share of property, written in Quran verse 7 surah an-Nisa’: “Men will have a share in what their parents and their near relatives leave; and women will have a share in what their parents and their near relatives leave: whether it be a little or much, they shall be legally entitled to their shares.”2 In jahiliyah period, woman and children did not obtain the right of inheritance property. The verse straightened and confirmed that man obtains his share and woman also obtains her share from his/her mother, father, and family.3 Beside regulated in the verse of Quran, inheritance regulation is also ruled by Islamic positive law. In article 71 (a) Compilation of Islamic Law, inheritance law regulates the transfer of inheritance right, determines the persons who has right to become heir, and how many each heirs get the share. The article 71 (a) Compilation of Islamic Law explains that inheritance law is compilation of regulation which regulates the rule of inheritance. Principally, according to Islamic law of inheritance, distribution of inheritance is performed after the deceased passed away. Automatically the deceased leaves the 2Malik, The Qur’an in English Translation Complete, (t.t.: MidEastWeb, 2007), p. 29. 3 Syakroni, Konflik Harta Warisan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), p. 19. 3 property and distributed to the heirs. So, we can conclude that every heir has right to become the legal heirs. The case happened in Geluran Village, Taman Subdistrict, Sidoarjo Regency shows that the deceased gave some of wealth to eldest son by means of hibah before the deceased passed away. However, in this family way, the hibah became inheritance object (the property). But it is not matter, because article 211 Compilation of Islamic Law have regulated that the parent’s hibah can be computable as inheritance. But sometimes distribution of inheritance is not appropriate with Islamic law. In this fact, the problem is the difference way in distributing the inheritance. The inheritance is not given to every heir (children). The case happened in Geluran Village, Taman Subdistrict, Sidoarjo Regency, firstly the inheritance was distributed by collecting all of separated properties. After the properties were collected, eldest son invited his brothers and sisters to talk the way of inheritance distribution. Finally, the result of meeting was agreed by all brothers and sisters. The properties were not distributed to all heirs. Some shares of the property were given as endowment, but another was saved by eldest son. Then if one of brother or sister wants to take the share of property (saved by eldest brother), he or she must loan the property. Someday, he or she must return the property to be saved again. Thus, the heir has not right to possess the property because when he or she loans the property, he or she must returns. In this fact, the distribution is not appropriate with Islamic law. Because of in the rule of inheritance distribution, the heir should obtain the share of 4 property. The difference on the way of inheritance distribution becomes big question, how does maslahah view on converting inheritance right into saving and loan form. In addition, why do people convert inheritance right into saving and loan form. Therefore, researcher wants to study on the case with the view of maslahah as tool analysis. So, the researcher is intended to deeply research in thesis with title,”Converting Inheritance Right Into Saving and Loan Form in Maslahah Perspective (Case Study in Geluran, Taman, Sidoarjo)”. B. Statement of Problem From the background of the problem, the questions will be proposed in the title are as follow: 1. Why do people convert inheritance right into saving and loan form? 2. How does maslahah view on converting inheritance right into saving and loan form? C. Objective of Research From the formulated problems above, the objectives of research are as follow: 1. To describe the people’s reason converting inheritance right into saving and loan form. 2. To explore maslahah views on converting inheritance right into saving and loan form. 5 D. Significance of Research 1. Theoretically The research result is expected to provide additional knowledge about concept of inheritance law. Besides, the researceh is also expected to be useful reference for developing legal knowledge, with giving additional of law thinking, especially in Islamic law of inheritance in Indonesia. 2. Practically The research result is expected to make a contribution, used for policy makers in the implementation of inheritance law and can be used as reference for the judge of religion court in same case. Beside, the research result is also used as reference for society in distribution of inheritance. E. Operational Definition 1. Saving and loan Saving and loan is the saving collected together and loaned to members who need it. Thus, saving and loan is an activity to save and loan the savings are that colletcted together. F. Structure of Discussion To provide the thesis systematically and well relationing of each chapter, researcher describes the structures of the thesis as follows: Firstly, Chapter I is the introduction of thesis that contains: background of research as the basis reason of writing the research. Then the next are the statement of problem and objective of problem. The statement of problem is the question of the research that must be answered. The objective of problem explains 6 the achieved result of the reseearch. Furthermore, the significance of the research provides the thinking on Islamic law of inheritance development. The last is structure of discussion that can give a good basis picture and systematic research plot. Chapter II is a review of the related literature that consists of the previous researchs and the theories. Previous researchs are informations of research that had been done by previous researchers. Chapter II aims to review the concepts and theoretical basis for research analysis. The previous researchs mention the differences and similarities between previous and current researchs. The theories discuss Islamic law of inheritance. Then the theories are: Islamic Law of Inheritance, Legal Basis of Islamic Law of Inheritance, Islamic Law of Inheritance in Hazairin, Inheritance Right, Maslahah, Ash-Shulhu, and Maqashid Syariah. This chapter is intended to get the theoretical knowledge. Then, Chapter III is a research method that is directive step of research as tool of research. This chapter provides the steps used to discuss the problem of research. The research method explains the tools and methods to analyze the data obtained. Chapter IV is the findings and discussions of the research. This chapter provides the description of the case. This chapter focuses to see the description of the case, the commentaries of scholars, the reasons of converting inheritance right into saving and loan form, maslahah views on converting inheritance right into saving and loan form. This chapter will be processed with entering the data and 7 information from previous chapter. So, the result obtained is accurate and undoubtable. Finally, Chapter V is closing. The last chapter provides conclusion of research discussion. Then it is completed with suggestion as additional thinking. The chapter is expected to understand about the research.

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