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Thursday, June 11, 2015

Distribusi Pendapatan Dan Pola Konsumsi Masyarakat Desa Pesisir Kabupaten Deli Serdang Dan Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai

Isma, Hasania
Differences in household income in each different business field can cause income inequality among households with each other. Income differences reflect the existence of inequality in income. The income differences also lead to different patterns of consumption and consumption expenditure of a household. This research aims to measure the level of income inequality, consumption patterns, and income elasticity of food consumption of coastal villagers in the district of Deli Serdang and Serdang Bedagai. This research was conducted in the village percut and the village of Pantai Labu Pekan Deli Serdang Regency and Bogak Besar village, and village of Pekan Tanjung beringin Serdang Bedagai (± 8 mdpl) in February – March 2010. Sampling method use “Proportional Strafied Random Sampling” is stratified random sample selection of the overall population that exists, where each stratum is represented by a sample of the amount determined proportionately. Strata are divide into three groups of field effort are farmers, traders, and fishermen. Number of samples was 60 families, as many as 30 samples taken in the coastal village of Deli Serdang district, and 30 samples in the coastal village Serdang Bedagai. Data obtained were analyzed by using the “Gini Coefficient Ratio”, “Consumption Patterns”, and “Income Elasticity”. Results showed that (1) Inequality in income in the coastal village of Deli Serdang district is high and income inequality in the coastal village Serdang Bedagai is middle. (2) In the coastal village of the district of Deli Serdang and Serdang Bedagai dominated by food consumption patterns. (3) Consumption of food items in the coastal village of Deli Serdang regency and Serdang Bedagai is elastic.
Perbedaan pendapatan dalam setiap rumah tangga yang berbeda lapangan usahanya dapat menyebabkan ketimpangan pendapatan antara rumah tangga yang satu dengan lainnya. Perbedaan pendapatan tersebut mencerminkan adanya ketidakmerataan pendapatan. Perbedaan pendapatan tersebut juga mengakibatkan perbedaan pola konsumsi dan pengeluaran konsumsi suatu rumah tangga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur tingkat ketimpangan pendapatan, pola konsumsi, dan elastisitas pendapatan terhadap konsumsi pangan masyarakat desa pesisir di kabupaten Deli Serdang dan di kabupaten Serdang Bedagai. Penelitian ini dilakukan di desa Percut, dan desa Pantai Labu Pekan kabupetan Deli Serdang serta desa Bogak Besar, dan desa Pekan Tanjung Beringin kabupaten Serdang Bedagai (± 8 mdpl) pada Februari – Maret 2010. Penentuan sampel menggunakan metode ”Proportional Stratified Random Sampling” yaitu pemilihan sampel secara acak berstrata dari keseluruhan populasi yang ada, dimana setiap strata diwakili oleh sampel yang jumlahnya ditetapkan secara proporsional. Strata dibagi atas tiga kelompok lapangan usaha yakni petani, pedagang, dan nelayan. Jumlah sampel yang diambil sebanyak 60 KK, diambil sebanyak 30 sampel di desa pesisir kabupaten Deli Serdang, dan 30 sampel di desa pesisir kabupaten Serdang Bedagai. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan ”Koefisien Gini Ratio”, ”Pola Konsumsi” dan ”Elastisitas Pendapatan”. Hasil penelitian mnunjukkan bahwa (1) Ketimpangan pendapatan di desa pesisir kabupaten Deli Serdang tergolong tinggi dan ketimpangan pendapatan di desa pesisir kabupaten Serdang Bedagai tergolong sedang. (2) Di desa pesisir kabupaten deli Serdang dan Serdang bedagai didominasi oleh pola konsumsi pangan. (3) Konsumsi barang pangan di desa pesisir kabupaten Deli Serdang dan Serdang Bedagai adalah elastis.

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